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Intrinsic Value

from Wikipedia   

Intrinsic Value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical or philosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or (in Kantian terminology) end-in-itself.

It is contrasted with instrumental value (or extrinsic value), the value of which depends on how much it generates intrinsic value. For an eudaemonist, happiness (human flourishing) has intrinsic value, while having a family may not have intrinsic value, yet be instrumental, since it generates happiness.

Intrinsic value is a term employed in axiology, the study of quality or value. Axiology is the philosophical study of value. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics—philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of worth—or the foundation for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and meta-ethics. The term was first used by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Eduard von Hartmann, in 1908.

Axiology studies mainly two kinds of values: ethics and aesthetics. Ethics investigates the concepts of "right" and "good" in individual and social conduct. Aesthetics studies the concepts of "beauty" and "harmony." Formal axiology, the attempt to lay out principles regarding value with mathematical rigor, is exemplified by Robert S. Hartman's Science of Value.

7 Steps of Creative Thinking

from Wikipedia

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a literary work or a painting).

Scholarly interest in creativity involves many definitions and concepts pertaining to a number of disciplines: psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), technology, theology, sociology, linguistics, business studies, songwriting, and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, mental and neurological processes, personality type and creative ability, creativity and mental health; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology; and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.

Aesthetics

from Wikipedia

The Relationship Between Spirituality and Artistic Expression: Cultivating the Capacity for Imagining
By Christine Valters Paintner, Ph.D.


The heart of human identity is the capacity and desire for birthing. To be is to become creative and bring forth the beautiful. John O’Donohue In this article I explore the relationship between spirituality, creativity, and the arts, and show that cultivating the arts as a spiritual practice is a path to freeing our imaginations and developing valuable skills for vital living in the world.
Aesthetics

Aesthetics, or the philosophy of art, is the study of beauty and taste. It is about interpreting works of art and art movements or theories. The term aesthetic is also used to designate a particular style, for example the "chess aesthetics", or the "Japanese aesthetic".

As well as being applied to art, aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects. Aesthetic design principles include ornamentation, edge delineation, texture, flow, solemnity, symmetry, color, granularity, the interaction of sunlight and shadows, transcendence, and harmony.

The word aesthetic is also an adjective and adverb relating to cosmetology and medicine, as in aesthetic medicine.

Also spelt æsthetics and esthetics, the word is derived from the Ancient Greek (aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive, sentient, pertaining to sense perception"), which in turn was derived from (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense").

Artistic Expression

from Wikipedia

Artistic Expression

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts – artworks, expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

450px-Sandro_Botticelli_-_La_nascita_di_Venere.jpg

The oldest form of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example.

Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of art or the arts. Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.

Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis (its representation of reality), expression, communication of emotion, or other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science". Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.

The nature of art, and related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

Causality

from Wikipedia

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is the agency or efficacy that connects one process (the cause) with another (the effect), where the first is understood to be partly responsible for the second, and the second is dependent on the first.

In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of many other effects, which all lie in its future.

Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of agency and efficacy. For this reason, a leap of intuition may be needed to grasp it. Accordingly, causality is built into the conceptual structure of ordinary language.

In Aristotelian philosophy, the word 'cause' is also used to mean 'explanation' or 'answer to a why question', including Aristotle's material, formal, efficient, and final "causes"; then the "cause" is the explanans for the explanandum. In this case, failure to recognize that different kinds of "cause" are being considered can lead to futile debate.

Of Aristotle's four explanatory modes, the one nearest to the concerns of the present article is the "efficient" one. The topic remains a staple in contemporary philosophy.

the following article contributed by Cassie

How Technology Can Enhance our Spirituality

7/30/2018 How Technology Can Enhance our Spirituality

One of the biggest misconceptions about technology is that it stands in the way of happiness. Most of us enjoy the benefits bestowed by ubiquitous connectivity, stay attached to loved ones far away via social media, and avail of
time management/shared workspace/presentation apps that help us shine in our professional and personal lives. Yet, did you know that technology can also make us happier by enhancing our spirituality?

What Role can Spirituality Play in our Daily Lives?

Spirituality is a wider concept than religion, since it can be deeply personal and encompass anything that makes us feel like part of the greater life force that unites all sentient things. It is only in the past decade that a plethora of studies have been carried out into the link between spirituality and mental wellbeing, with findings almost universally showing that people who make time for spiritual pursuits, are, indeed, happier.

Some studies have looked into organized religion (finding that the sense of community it provides can help buffer life’s vicissitudes) while others focus just on spirituality. All conclude that the biggest obstacles we have to face are carried with greater ease when we feel that our lives have meaning and purpose.

Popular Trends in Spirituality

These days, being more spiritual is as much about attending a religious service, as it is about doing yoga or mindfulness meditation – two spiritual pursuits which studies have shown boost our mental health in powerful ways, by reducing levels of stress hormone, cortisol, and increasing vitality and positive mood.

Others enjoy more esoteric arts such as tarot reading which can improve mental health by helping us rely on intuition, and using symbols to help us connect with, analyze, and organize our thoughts and emotions. Some practices work more directly on energy, such as Reiki, which uses the hands to help unblock energy to enhance our health.

Technological Advances in the Realm of Spirituality

Being as busy as we are, it helps to have aids that can lead us into ‘higher ground’ more quickly. Some of the most popular aids we can avail of include:

  1. Yoga and pranayamic breathing apps and sites: There are high quality apps and websites which provide audiovisual material to guide us through healing activities such as pranayamic breathing – another proven remedy against stress and anxiety. With activities ranging from a few minutes to over an hour for practitioners of all levels, yoga has become an affordable pursuit we can carry out in our own home.
  2. Meditation headsets: MUSE is a popular headset which uses sounds from nature (such as waves, birds etc.) to gently lead us into a mindful, calm state; one which is beneficial to battle symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  3. Neurofeedback and Biofeedback: This technology involves hooking up sensors to your fingers and some muscle areas, as well as electrodes to the sides of your head, to check your heart rate, heart variability, and brain waves. It is a completely safe technology experienced under the guiding hand of a certified practitioner, who helps you relax and connect with your inner world by providing activities that lower your heart rate, and promote greater heart rate variability and calmer brain waves.

We have mentioned just a few ways that technology can help lead us into the calm, happy state in which spirituality can play an important role, but there are many more ways you can use technology to enhance happiness. Whether you use apps and devices to stay fit, keep up with friends or enjoy a yoga session in your own backyard, make sure they enable you to be a happier person whose life has richer meaning.

Cassie


This page was last updated December 14th, 2018 by kim

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