Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. The American Marketing Association has defined marketing as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." 
Marketing includes virtually all customer related activities a business carries out, from developing a product consumers will enjoy, to attracting customers, to maintaining a customer base, to serving and satisfying the customer.
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market with goods for sale. From a Sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions" of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction.
The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably." A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. In this context, marketing can be defined as "the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage."
Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising, distribution and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science, allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science (MSc) programs.
The process of marketing is that of bringing a product to market. As such, the steps include, broad market research; market targeting and market segmentation; determining distribution, pricing and promotion strategies; developing a communications strategy; budgeting; and visioning long-term market development goals. Many parts of the marketing process (e.g. product design, Art direction, Brand management, advertising, Copywriting etc.) involve use of the creative arts.
Digital marketing (also known as data-driven marketing) is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.
Digital marketing's development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing. As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops, digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.
Digital marketing techniques such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing and e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones.
E-commerce is a transaction of buying or selling online. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail. Typical e-commerce transactions are in the online books (such as Amazon) and music purchase (music download in the form of digital distribution such as iTunes Store), and to a less extent customized/personalized online liquor store inventory services.
E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the followings:
. Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
. Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
. Business-to-business buying and selling;
. Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
. Business-to-business (B2B) electronic data interchange
. Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters)
. Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services
. Online financial exchanges for currency exchanges or trading purposes.
Mobile marketing is multi-channel online marketing technique focused at reaching a specific audience on their smart phone, tablets, or any other related devices through websites, E mail, SMS and MMS, social media or mobile applications.  Mobile marketing can provide customers with time and location sensitive, personalized information that promotes goods, services and ideas. In a more theoretical manner, academic Andreas Kaplan defines mobile marketing as "any marketing activity conducted through a ubiquitous network to which consumers are constantly connected using a personal mobile device".
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising. SEM may incorporate search engine optimization (SEO), which adjusts or rewrites website content and site architecture to achieve a higher ranking in search engine results pages to enhance pay per click (PPC) listings.
As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 1990s, search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. Search engines developed business models to finance their services, such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text in 1996 and then Goto.com in 1998. Goto.com later changed its name to Overture in 2001, was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003, and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program. By 2007, pay-per-click programs proved to be primary moneymakers for search engines. In a market dominated by Google, in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010.
Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines, and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged. The term "search engine marketing" was popularized by Danny Sullivan in 2001 to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and individuals.
Digital Marketing Depot
is a resource center for digital marketing strategies and tactics.
We feature hosted White Papers and E-Books, original research, and webcasts on digital marketing topics -- from advertising to analytics, SEO and PPC campaign management tools to social media management software, e-commerce to e-mail marketing, and much more about internet marketing.
Marketing Land is a daily publication that covers all aspects of the digital marketing industry. The site is led by Editor-In-Chief Matt McGee, who oversees the successful editorial team behind sister publication, Search Engine Land. Daily news coverage includes breaking stories, industry trends, feature announcements and product changes at popular platforms used by digital marketers to reach consumers online.
In addition to the editorial news staff coverage, Marketing Land features contributed articles by subject matter experts across all digital marketing disciplines, filled with practical tips, tactics and strategies for running successful marketing programs. Learn more about our contributor network and read our contributor guidelines and application form here.
Both sites were founded by search industry veterans Danny Sullivan (Chief Content Officer & Founding Editor) and Chris Sherman (VP of Programming & Founding Editor) and are published by Third Door Media. Third Door Media is also the parent company that produces Digital Marketing Depot, our research center for digital marketers, as well as the MarTech and Search Marketing Expo conference series.
Small Business Online Marketing Guide - Google
Every day we hear from business owners who think they need special skills to reach new customers online. Overwhelmed by the number and seeming complexity of online marketing options, they sit on the sidelines, eager to get in the game but confused about where to start. Sound familiar? If so, this guide is for you. Whether you’re new to online marketing or just looking to do it better, the advice in this guide can help you reach your business goals. You’ll learn:
• How many new customers you can find online
• 10 ways to use the Internet to grow your business
• How to measure your results
• How one small business gets 90% of its sales online
• Key terms and what they mean
We’ve also created a daily tip sheet filled with ideas to help you get started as well as marketing plans for four different types of businesses. Get started right away by filling out the worksheet to create an action plan. As with anything else, practice and persistence will lead to online marketing success. We hope this guide starts you on the path to becoming an online superstar.
North America Business Marketing
This page was last updated August 28th, 2019 by kim
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