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Introduction to Computing - David Evans

The first million years of hominid history produced tools to amplify, and later mechanize, our physical abilities to enable us to move faster, reach higher, and hit harder. We have developed tools that amplify physical force by the trillions and increase the speeds at which we can travel by the thousands.

Computing is the ultimate mental amplifier.

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Objective   10/24/2017

Web project resources.

Link building  10/24/2017

from Wikipedia

In the field of search engine optimization, link building describes actions aimed at increasing the number and quality of inbound links to a webpage with the goal of increasing the search engine rankings of that page or website.[1]

Link types

Editorial link
Editorial links are the links not acquired from paying money, asking, trading or exchanging. These links are attracted because of the good content and marketing strategies of a website. These are the links that the website owner does not need to ask for as they are naturally given by other website owners.[3]

Resource link
Resource links are a category of links, which can be either one-way or two-way, usually referenced as "Resources" or "Information" in navbars, but sometimes, especially in the early, less compartmentalized years of the Web, simply called "links". Basically, they are hyperlinks to a website or a specific webpage containing content believed to be beneficial, useful and relevant to visitors of the site establishing the link. In recent years, resource links have grown in importance because most major search engines have made it plain that—in Google's words— "quantity, quality, and relevance of links count towards your rating".[4] Search engines measure a website’s value and relevance by analyzing the links to the site from other websites. The resulting “link popularity” is a measure of the number and quality of links to a website. It is an integral part of a website’s ranking in search engines. Search engines examine each of the links to a particular website to determine its value. Although every link to a website is a vote in its favor, not all votes are counted equally. A website with similar subject matter to the website receiving the inbound link carries more weight than an unrelated site, and a well-regarded site (such as a University) has higher link quality than an unknown or disreputable website.[5] The text of links helps search engines categorize a website. The engines' insistence on resource links being relevant and beneficial developed because many artificial link building methods were employed solely to "spam" search engines, i.e. to "fool" the engines' algorithms into awarding the sites employing these unethical devices undeservedly high page ranks and/or return positions. Despite cautioning site developers from Google to avoid "'free-for-all' links, link popularity schemes, or submitting a site to thousands of search engines these are typically useless exercises that don't affect the ranking a site in the results of the major search engines.[6] most[which?] major engines have deployed technology designed to "red flag" and potentially penalize sites employing such practices.[7]

Acquired link
These are the links acquired by the website owner through payment or distribution. They are also known as organically obtained links. Such links include link advertisements, paid linking, article distribution, directory links and comments on forums, blogs and other interactive forms of social media.[8]

Reciprocal link
A reciprocal link is a mutual link between two objects, commonly between two websites, to ensure mutual traffic. For example, Alice and Bob have websites. If Bob's website links to Alice's website and Alice's website links to Bob's website, the websites are reciprocally linked. Website owners often submit their sites to reciprocal link exchange directories in order to achieve higher rankings in the search engines. Reciprocal linking between websites is no longer an important part of the search engine optimization process. In 2005, with their Jagger 2 update, Google stopped giving credit to reciprocal links as it does not indicate genuine link popularity.[9]

Forum signature linking
Forum signature linking is a technique used to build backlinks to a website. This is the process of using forum communities that allow outbound hyperlinks in a member's signature. This can be a fast method to build up inbound links to a website's Search Engine Optimization value.

Blog comments
Leaving a comment on a blog can result in a relevant do-follow link to the individual's website. Most of the time, however, leaving a comment on a blog turns into a no-follow link, which are not counted by search engines, such as Google and Yahoo! Search. On the other hand, blog comments are clicked on by the readers of the blog if the comment is well-thought-out and pertains to the discussion of the post on the blog.[10]

Directory link
Website directories are lists of links to websites which are sorted into categories. Website owners can submit their site to many of these directories. Some directories accept payment for listing in their directory while others are free.

Social bookmarking
Social bookmarking is a way of saving and categorizing web pages in a public location on the web. Because bookmarks have anchor text and are shared and stored publicly, they are scanned by search engine crawlers and have search engine optimization value.

Image linking
Image linking is a way of submitting images, such as infographics, to image directories and linking them back to a specific URL.

Black hat link building
In early incarnations, when Google's algorithm relied on incoming links as an indicator of website success, Black Hat SEOs manipulated website rankings by creating link-building schemes, such as building subsidiary websites to send links to a primary website. With an abundance of incoming links, the prime website outranked many reputable sites. However, the conflicts of being devalued by major search engines while building links could be caused by web owners using other black hat strategies. Black hat link building refers explicitly to the process of acquiring as many links as possible with minimal effort.
The Penguin algorithm was created to eliminate this type of abuse. At the time, Google clarified its definition of a "bad" link: “Any links intended to manipulate a site’s ranking in Google search results may be considered part of a link scheme.”
With Penguin, it wasn't the quantity of links that improved your site but the quality. Since then, Google's web spam team has attempted to prevent the manipulation of their search results through link building. Major brands including J.C. Penney, BMW, Forbes, Overstock.com, and many others have received severe penalties to their search rankings for employing spammy and non-user friendly link building tactics.[11]
In October 5, 2014 Google launched a new algorithm update Penguin 3.0 to penalize those sites who use black hat link building tactics to build unnatural links to manipulate search engines. The update affected 0.3% English Language queries all over the world.[12]
Black hat SEO could also be referred to as Spamdexing, which utilizes other black SEO strategies and link building tactics.[13] Some black hat link building strategies include getting unqualified links from and participating in Link farm, link schemes and Doorway page.[6] Black Hat SEO could also refer to "negative SEO," the practice of deliberately harming another website's performance.

White hat link building
White hat link building strategies are those strategies that add value to end users, abide by Google's term of service and produce good results that could be sustained for a long time. White hat link building strategies focus on producing high-quality as well as relevant links to the website. Although more difficult to acquire, white hat link building tactics are widely implemented by website owners because such kind of strategies are not only beneficial to their websites' long-term developments but also good to the overall online environment.

Link exchange  10/24/2017

from Wikipedia

A link exchange is a confederation of websites that operates similarly to a web ring. Webmasters register their web sites with a central organization, that runs the exchange, and in turn receive from the exchange HTML code which they insert into their web pages. In contrast to a web ring, where the HTML code simply comprises simple circular ring navigation hyperlinks, in a link exchange the HTML code causes the display of banner advertisements, for the sites of other members of the exchange, on the member web sites, and webmasters have to create such banner advertisements for their own web sites.[1][2][3]

The banners are downloaded from the exchange. A monitor on the exchange determines, from referral information supplied by web browsers, how many times a member web site has displayed the banner advertisements of other members, and credits that member with a number of displays of its banner on some other member's web site. Link exchanges usually operate on a 2:1 ratio, such that for every two times a member shows a second member's banner advertisement, that second member displays the first member's banner advertisement. This page impressions:credits ratio is the exchange rates.[1][3][4]

One of the earliest link exchanges was LinkExchange, a company that is now owned by Microsoft.[1]

Link exchanges have advantages and disadvantages from the point of view of those using the World Wide Web for marketing. On the one hand, they have the advantages of bringing in a highly targeted readership (for link exchanges where all members of the exchange have similar web sites), of increasing the "link popularity" of a site with Web search engines, and of being relatively stable methods of hyperlinking. On the other hand, they have the disadvantages of potentially distracting visitors away to other sites before they have fully explored the site that the original link was on.[2]

Engaging in link exchanges or paid linking activity is highly discouraged by Google and not recommended for webmasters seeking an advantage in search engine rankings. Google considers excessive link exchanges and exchanging reciprocal links "Link Schemes" and can suppress the linked site in search engine results or block in altogether.[5]

Feig[6] notes several aspects of link exchange companies that prospective members take into account:
. Banners that are animated images result in member web sites taking a long time to load. Some companies impose restrictions on animation lengths.
. The size, in bytes, of a banner is important, affecting both how long it takes to load and how long it takes to render the web site displaying the banner.
. Control over the subjects of advertisements is important. Some companies offer guarantees that advertisements will be restricted to certain subjects, will not include advertisements for pornography, and so forth.
. Companies that provide mechanisms to design banners for webmasters often use automated facilities, where the generated banner design is not reviewed by a human being.

Webring  10/24/2017

from Wikipedia

A webring (or web ring) is a collection of websites linked together in a circular structure, and usually organized around a specific theme, often educational or social.[1] They were popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, particularly among amateur websites.

To be a part of the webring, each site has a common navigation bar; it contains links to the previous and next site. By selecting next (or previous) repeatedly, the user will eventually reach the site they started at; this is the origin of the term webring. However, the select-through route around the ring is usually supplemented by a central site with links to all member sites; this prevents the ring from breaking completely if a member site goes offline. A webring is managed from one website which is able to omit the websites that have dropped out or are no longer reachable. The advantage of a webring is that if the user is interested in the topic on one website, they can quickly connect to another website on the same topic.[2] Webrings usually have a moderator who decides which pages to include in the webring. After approval, webmasters add their pages to the ring by 'linking in' to the ring; this requires adding the necessary HTML or JavaScript to their site.

Sites usually join a webring in order to receive traffic from related sites. When used to improve search engine rankings, webrings can be considered a search engine optimization technique.

Webring World   10/24/2017

Webring World

This website is the result of the collaborative effort of some experienced ringmasters engaged in the webring community.

Our mission is to define and develop the webring concept, and to promote public awareness, acceptance, exploration and enjoyment of webrings, by sharing experiences and providing resources and practical help to ringmasters and members.

We are a focus community of dedicated and caring individuals who have a passionate commitment to share our many years of webring knowledge and experience with Ring Managers, Ring Members, System Managers, Webring Programmers, and the general public alike.

To go hand in hand with the Webring World community site is the Webring World Ring Managers Community, as a source of discussion and assistance to anyone who requires it. But it has become so much more then that.

You will find we are a group of people who have a passion to share our knowledge, help with problems and assist in educating the wider public about webrings.

You will find a warm and welcoming group of people who constantly demonstrated selfless acts of understanding and patience.

You will find healthy discussions about different webring systems. Bet you didn’t know that were that many. Did you know that you can host your own free webring system? Yep, Ringlink or FS Rings.

So from this list an idea was conceived and November 2002 marked the birth of the Webring World community site.

If you would like to become an editor the first step is to use our Contact Page and submit your details. We always need help around here! You don’t have to be a webring expert to help out either, we all have various talents to offer!

DoubleClick for Publishers   10/24/2017

from Wikipedia    DoubleClick    DoubleClick for Publishers

DoubleClick is a subsidiary of Google which develops and provides Internet ad serving services. Its clients include agencies, marketers (Universal McCann, AKQA etc.) and publishers who serve customers like Microsoft, General Motors, Coca-Cola, Motorola, L'Oréal, Palm, Inc., Apple Inc., Visa USA, Nike, Carlsberg among others. DoubleClick's headquarters is in New York City, United States.[not verified in body] DoubleClick was founded in 1996 by Kevin O'Connor and Dwight Merriman.

It was formerly listed as "DCLK" on the NASDAQ, and was purchased by private equity firms Hellman & Friedman and JMI Equity in July 2005. In March 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for US$3.1 billion.

Early developments

DoubleClick was founded as one of the earliest known Application Service Provider (ASP) for internet "ad-serving"—primarily banner ads. After an IPO on the NASDAQ under the "DCLK" ticker symbol in early 1998, the company was associated with an internet traffic report including Yahoo!, AOL, Alta Vista and Excite where the company was listed within the top 10 internet websites in the world—when it was delivering as many ad impressions at the time as these early major internet properties were delivering page views. Its DoubleClick DART (Dynamic Advertising Reporting & Targeting) ASP/SaaS ad-serving technology allowed clear targeting and reporting of ad-serving per media property for websites within its network and technology sectors. In 1999, at a cost of US $1.7 billion, DoubleClick merged with the data-collection agency Abacus Direct, which works with offline catalog companies. This raised fears that the combined company would link anonymous Web-surfing profiles with personally identifiable information (name, address, telephone number, e-mail, address, etc.) collected by Abacus.

This merger made waves and was criticized by privacy organizations. It was discovered that sensitive financial information users entered on a popular website that offered financial software was being sent to DoubleClick, which delivered the advertisements. Much of this controversy was generated by statements made by Jason Catlett of Junkbusters, who claimed that DoubleClick was doing and/or intended to do things that it had never mentioned or included in any planned or announced service. The Federal Trade Commission launched an investigation into DoubleClick's collection and compilation of personal information shortly after the Abacus acquisition, in reaction to which DoubleClick announced that it would not merge the DoubleClick and Abacus databases. The FTC concluded its investigation in early 2001.[3] In April 2005, Hellman & Friedman, a San Francisco-based private equity firm, announced its intent to acquire the company and operate it as two separate divisions with two separate CEOs for TechSolutions and Data Marketing. The deal was closed in July 2005. Hellman & Friedman announced in December 2006 the sale of Abacus to Epsilon Data Management, whose parent company is AllianceData Systems Corporation.

Acquisition by Google, Inc.

Google announced on April 13, 2007 that it had come to a definitive agreement to acquire DoubleClick for US $3.1 billion in cash.[4] US lawmakers have investigated possible privacy and antitrust implications of the proposed acquisition.[5] At hearings, representatives from Microsoft warned of a potential monopolistic effect.[6] On December 20, 2007, the FTC approved Google's purchase of DoubleClick from its owners Hellman & Friedman and JMI Equity, saying, "After carefully reviewing the evidence, we have concluded that Google's proposed acquisition of DoubleClick is unlikely to substantially lessen competition."[7] European Union regulators followed suit on March 11, 2008. Google completed the acquisition later that day. On April 2, 2008, Google announced it would cut 300 jobs at DoubleClick due to organizational redundancies. Selected employees would be matched within the Google organization as per position and experience.[8]

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