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Introduction to Computing - David Evans

The first million years of hominid history produced tools to amplify, and later mechanize, our physical abilities to enable us to move faster, reach higher, and hit harder. We have developed tools that amplify physical force by the trillions and increase the speeds at which we can travel by the thousands.

Computing is the ultimate mental amplifier.

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Web Development Overview

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Objective   10/25/2017

Web Development resources.

Web development   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia

Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications (or just 'web apps') electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web engineering, web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. Among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Most recently Web development has come to mean the creation of content management systems or CMS. These CMS can be made from scratch, proprietary or open source. In broad terms the CMS acts as middleware between the database and the user through the browser. A principle benefit of a CMS is that it allows non-technical people to make changes to their web site without having technical knowledge.

For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers) and follow standard methods like Agile methodologies while developing websites. Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting developer, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. There are three kinds of web developer specialization:front-end developer, back-end developer, and full-stack developer. Front-end developers deal with the layout and visuals of a website, while back-end developers deal with the functionality of a website. Back-end developers will program in the functions of a website that will collect data.

Resource Links   10/25/2017


Comparison of FTP client software   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of FTP clients and related clients that use other file transfer protocols. Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.

Comparison of web hosting control panels. CPanel   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia    CPanel Wikipedia    cpanel.net

cPanel is an online Linux-based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site. cPanel utilizes a 3 tier structure that provides capabilities for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web browser.

In addition to the GUI, cPanel also has command line and API-based access that allows third party software vendors, web hosting organizations, and developers to automate standard system administration processes.[4]

cPanel is designed to function either as a dedicated server or virtual private server. The latest cPanel version supports installation on CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), and CloudLinux OS.[5] cPanel 11.30 is the last major version to support FreeBSD.[6][7]

Application-based support includes Apache, PHP, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Perl, and BIND (DNS). Email based support includes POP3, IMAP, and SMTP services. cPanel is accessed via https on port 2083.

Once installed, cPanel cannot be easily removed. cPanel's FAQ states that the best way to uninstall cPanel is by reformatting the server.[8] However, uninstall guides are available online for expert server administrators who do not wish to reformat their server. Similarly, it should only be installed on a freshly installed operating system with minimal prior configuration.[9]

File Transfer Protocol   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia    RFC 959

FTP is built on a client-server model OF architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS). SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is sometimes also used instead; it is technologically different.

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.[2][3] Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as web page editors.

LAMP (software bundle)   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia

LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language. The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection. As a solution stack, LAMP is suitable for building dynamic web sites and web applications.[1]

Since its creation, the LAMP model has been adapted to other componentry, though typically consisting of free and open-source software. For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is known as WAMP and an equivalent installation on macOS is known as MAMP.

List of HTTP status codes  10/25/2017

from Wikipedia

This is a list of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) response status codes. It includes codes from IETF Request for Comments (RFCs), other specifications, and some additional codes used in some common applications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The first digit of the status code specifies one of five standard classes of responses. The message phrases shown are typical, but any human-readable alternative may be provided. Unless otherwise stated, the status code is part of the HTTP/1.1 standard (RFC 7231).[1]

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains the official registry of HTTP status codes.[2]

Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) sometimes uses additional decimal sub-codes for more specific information,[3] however these sub-codes only appear in the response payload and in documentation, not in the place of an actual HTTP status code.

1xx Informational responses
An informational response indicates that the request was received and understood. It is issued on a provisional basis while request processing continues. It alerts the client to wait for a final response. The message consists only of the status line and optional header fields, and is terminated by an empty line. As the HTTP/1.0 standard did not define any 1xx status codes, servers must not[note 1] send a 1xx response to an HTTP/1.0 compliant client except under experimental conditions.[4]

2xx Success
This class of status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, understood, accepted, and processed successfully.[2]

3xx Redirection
This class of status code indicates the client must take additional action to complete the request. Many of these status codes are used in URL redirection.[2] A user agent may carry out the additional action with no user interaction only if the method used in the second request is GET or HEAD. A user agent may automatically redirect a request. A user agent should detect and intervene to prevent cyclical redirects.[18]

4xx Client errors
This class of status code is intended for situations in which the error seems to have been caused by the client. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. These status codes are applicable to any request method. User agents should display any included entity to the user.[31]

5xx Server errors
The server failed to fulfill a request.[58] Response status codes beginning with the digit "5" indicate cases in which the server is aware that it has encountered an error or is otherwise incapable of performing the request. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and indicate whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. Likewise, user agents should display any included entity to the user. These response codes are applicable to any request method.[59]

Meta elements   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia
W3C HTML 5 Specification: the meta element

Meta elements are tags used in HTML and XHTML documents to provide structured metadata about a Web page. They are part of a web page's head section. Multiple Meta elements with different attributes can be used on the same page. Meta elements can be used to specify page description, keywords and any other metadata not provided through the other head elements and attributes.

The meta element has two uses: either to emulate the use of an HTTP response header field, or to embed additional metadata within the HTML document.

With HTML up to and including HTML 4.01 and XHTML, there were four valid attributes: content, http-equiv, name and scheme. Under HTML 5 there are now five valid attributes, charset having been added. http-equiv is used to emulate an HTTP header, and name to embed metadata. The value of the statement, in either case, is contained in the content attribute, which is the only required attribute unless charset is given. charset is used to indicate the character set of the document, and is available in HTML5.

Such elements must be placed as tags in the head section of an HTML or XHTML document.

The two distinct parts of the elements are:

. Title tags
. Meta description

Site Hosting   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia
Web Hosting Tutorials . Web Hosting Definition

A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for other servers located in their data center, called colocation, also known as Housing in Latin America or France.

History

Until 1991, the Internet was restricted to use only ...for research and education in the sciences and engineering...[1][2] and was used for email, telnet, FTP and USENET traffic - but only a tiny number of web pages. The World Wide Web protocols had only just been written[3][4] and not until the end of 1993 would there be a graphical web browser for Mac or Windows computers.[5] Even after there was some opening up of internet access, the situation was confused until 1995.[6]

To host a website on the internet, an individual or company would need their own computer or server.[7] As not all companies had the budget or expertise to do this, web hosting services began to offer to host users websites on their own servers, without the client needing to own the necessary infrastructure required to operate the website. The owners of the websites, also called webmasters would be able to create a website that would be hosted on the web hosting service's server and published to the web by the web hosting service.

As the number of users on the World Wide Web grew, the pressure for companies, both large and small to have an online presence grew. By 1995, companies such as GeoCities, Angelfire and Tripod were offering free hosting.[8]

WAMP   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia    WAMP

LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language. The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection. As a solution stack, LAMP is suitable for building dynamic web sites and web applications.[1]

Since its creation, the LAMP model has been adapted to other componentry, though typically consisting of free and open-source software. For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is known as WAMP and an equivalent installation on macOS is known as MAMP.

Bitnami WAMP Stack provides a complete, fully-integrated and ready to run WAMP development environment. In addition to PHP, MySQL and Apache, it includes FastCGI, OpenSSL, phpMyAdmin, ModSecurity, SQLite, ImageMagick, xDebug, Xcache, OpenLDAP, ModSecurity, Memcache, OAuth, PEAR, PECL, APC, GD, cURL and other components and the following frameworks:Zend Framework, Symfony, CodeIgniter, CakePHP, Smarty, Laravel.

Web Servers   10/25/2017

from Wikipedia   
Introduction to Servers

A web server is a computer system that processes requests via HTTP, the basic network protocol used to distribute information on the World Wide Web. The term can refer to the entire system, or specifically to the software that accepts and supervises the HTTP requests.[1]

Overview

The primary function of a web server is to store, process and deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Pages delivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to text content.

Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website, here Dell servers are installed together being used for the Wikimedia Foundation

A user agent, commonly a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. The resource is typically a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the web server is implemented.

While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receiving content from clients. This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files.

Many generic web servers also support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP, or other scripting languages. This means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. Usually, this function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically ("on-the-fly") as opposed to returning static documents. The former is primarily used for retrieving or modifying information from databases. The latter is typically much faster and more easily cached but cannot deliver dynamic content.

Web servers are not only used for serving the World Wide Web. They can also be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers, webcams and serving only a local network. The web server may then be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer, since only a web browser is required (which now is included with most operating systems).

History

In 1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee proposed a new project to his employer CERN, with the goal of easing the exchange of information between scientists by using a hypertext system. The project resulted in Berners-Lee writing two programs in 1990:

A browser called WorldWideWeb.

The world's first web server, later known as CERN httpd, which ran on NeXTSTEP

Between 1991 and 1994, the simplicity and effectiveness of early technologies used to surf and exchange data through the World Wide Web helped to port them to many different operating systems and spread their use among scientific organizations and universities, and subsequently to industry.

In 1994 Berners-Lee decided to constitute the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to regulate the further development of the many technologies involved (HTTP, HTML, etc.) through a standardization process.

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