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Web Development Overview

Objective   2/15/2016

To document Web Development.

Web development   3/6/2016


Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network).

Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services.

A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development.

Among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding.

Most recently Web development has come to mean the creation of content management systems or CMS.

These CMS can be made from scratch, proprietary or open source.

In broad terms the CMS acts as middleware between the database and the user through the browser.

A principle benefit of a CMS is that it allows non-technical people to make changes to their Web site without having technical knowledge.

For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers) and follow standard methods like Agile methodologies while developing websites.

Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting developer, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician.

Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department.

Resource Links   4/7/2016

Comparison of FTP client software   3/19/2016


The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of FTP clients and related clients that use other file transfer protocols.

Please see the individual products' articles for further information.

Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.

Comparison of web hosting control panels. CPanel   3/21/2016

Wikipedia   CPanel Wikipedia   cpanel.net

cPanel is a Linux-based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site.

cPanel utilizes a 3 tier structure that provides capabilities for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web browser.

In addition to the GUI, cPanel also has command line and API-based access that allows third party software vendors, web hosting organizations, and developers to automate standard system administration processes.

cPanel is designed to function either as a dedicated server or virtual private server.

The latest cPanel version supports installation on CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), and CloudLinux OS.

cPanel 11.30 is the last major version to support FreeBSD.

Application-based support includes Apache, PHP, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Perl, and BIND (DNS).

Email based support includes POP3, IMAP, and SMTP services.

cPanel is accessed via https on port 2083.

Once installed, cPanel cannot be easily removed.

cPanel's FAQ states that the best way to uninstall cPanel is by reformatting the server.

However, uninstall guides are available online for expert server administrators who do not wish to reformat their server.

Similarly, it should only be installed on a freshly installed operating system with minimal prior configuration.

File Transfer Protocol   3/19/2016

Wikipedia   RFC 959

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

FTP is built on a client-server model architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.

FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.

For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS).

SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is sometimes also used instead, but is technologically different.

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.

Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as Web page editors.

LAMP (software bundle)   3/19/2016


LAMP is an archetypal model of web service solution stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language.

The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection.

As a solution stack, LAMP is suitable for building dynamic web sites and web applications.

Since its creation, the LAMP model has been adapted to other componentry, though typically consisting of free and open-source software.

For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is known as WAMP.

Meta elements   3/13/2016


W3C HTML 5 Specification: the meta element

Meta elements are tags used in HTML or XHTML documents to provide structured metadata about a Web page.

They are part of a web page's head section.

Multiple Meta elements with different attributes can be used on the same page.

Meta elements can be used to specify page description, keywords and any other metadata not provided through the other head elements and attributes.

The meta element has two uses: either to emulate the use of an HTTP response header field, or to embed additional metadata within the HTML document.

With HTML up to and including HTML 4.01 and XHTML, there were four valid attributes: content, http-equiv, name and scheme.

Under HTML 5 there are now five valid attributes, charset having been added.

http-equiv is used to emulate an HTTP header, and name to embed metadata.

The value of the statement, in either case, is contained in the content attribute, which is the only required attribute unless charset is given.

charset is used to indicate the character set of the document, and is available in HTML5.

Such elements must be placed as tags in the head section of an HTML or XHTML document.

Site Hosting   4/25/2016

Site Hosting

A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web.

Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center.

Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for other servers located in their data center, called colocation, also known as Housing in Latin America or France.

The scope of web hosting services varies greatly.

The most basic is web page and small-scale file hosting, where files can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or a Web interface.

The files are usually delivered to the Web "as is" or with minimal processing.

Many Internet service providers (ISPs) offer this service free to subscribers.

Individuals and organizations may also obtain Web page hosting from alternative service providers.

Personal web site hosting is typically free, advertisement-sponsored, or inexpensive.

Business web site hosting often has a higher expense depending upon the size and type of the site.

Single page hosting is generally sufficient for personal web pages.

A complex site calls for a more comprehensive package that provides database support and application development platforms (e.g. PHP, Java, Ruby on Rails, ColdFusion, or ASP.NET).

These facilities allow customers to write or install scripts for applications like forums and content management.

Also, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is typically used for websites that wish to keep the data transmitted more secure.

The host may also provide an interface or control panel for managing the Web server and installing scripts, as well as other modules and service applications like e-mail.

A web server that does not use a control panel for managing the hosting account, is often referred to as a "headless" server.

Some hosts specialize in certain software or services (e.g. e-commerce, blogs, etc..

Web Hosting Tutorials- What Is a Webhosting - Web Hosting Definition

WAMP   8/9/2016


Bitnami WAMP Stack provides a complete, fully-integrated and ready to run WAMP development environment. In addition to PHP, MySQL and Apache, it includes FastCGI, OpenSSL, phpMyAdmin, ModSecurity, SQLite, ImageMagick, xDebug, Xcache, OpenLDAP, ModSecurity, Memcache, OAuth, PEAR, PECL, APC, GD, cURL and other components and the following frameworks:Zend Framework, Symfony, CodeIgniter, CakePHP, Smarty, Laravel.

Web Servers   4/25/2016

A web server is an information technology that processes requests via HTTP, the basic network protocol used to distribute information on the World Wide Web.

The term can refer either to the entire computer system, an appliance, or specifically to the software that accepts and supervises the HTTP requests.

Introduction to Servers


The primary function of a web server is to store, process and deliver web pages to clients.

The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Pages delivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to text content.

Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website, here Dell servers are installed together being used for Wikimedia Foundation takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Pages delivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to text content.

A user agent, commonly a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so.

The resource is typically a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the web server is implemented.

While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receiving content from clients.

This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files.

Many generic web servers also support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP, or other scripting languages.

This means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged.

Usually, this function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically ("on-the-fly") as opposed to returning static documents.

The former is primarily used for retrieving and/or modifying information from databases.

The latter is typically much faster and more easily cached but cannot deliver dynamic content.

Web servers are not always used for serving the World Wide Web.

They can also be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers, webcams and serving only a local network.

The web server may then be used as a part of a system for monitoring and/or administering the device in question.

This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer, since only a web browser is required (which now is included with most operating systems).


The world's first web server, a NeXT Computer workstation with Ethernet, 1990.

The case label reads: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"

Sun's Cobalt Qube 3 - a computer server appliance (2002, discontinued)

In 1989 Tim Berners-Lee proposed a new project to his employer CERN, with the goal of easing the exchange of information between scientists by using a hypertext system.

The project resulted in Berners-Lee writing two programs in 1990: A browser called WorldWideWeb.

The world's first web server, later known as CERN httpd, which ran on NeXTSTEP Between 1991 and 1994, the simplicity and effectiveness of early technologies used to surf and exchange data through the World Wide Web helped to port them to many different operating systems and spread their use among scientific organizations and universities, and then to industry.

In 1994 Tim Berners-Lee decided to constitute the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to regulate the further development of the many technologies involved (HTTP, HTML, etc.) through a standardization process.

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