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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Objective   4/13/2016

To document CSS.

CSS    Cascading Style Sheets  6/30/2016

CSS Tutorial for Beginners

by EJ Media / 72 videos / 720,050 views / Last updated on Dec 18, 2015

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) [ccs2 Reference - Click HERE]

is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.

Although most often used to set the visual style of web pages and user interfaces written in HTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL, and is applicable to rendering in speech, or on other media.

Along with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for many mobile applications.

CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including aspects such as the layout, colors, and fonts.

This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple HTML pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content, such as semantically insignificant tables that were widely used to format pages before consistent CSS rendering was available in all major browsers.

CSS makes it possible to separate presentation instructions from the HTML content in a separate file or style section of the HTML file.

For each matching HTML element, it provides a list of formatting instructions.

For example, a CSS rule might specify that "all heading 1 elements should be bold", leaving pure semantic HTML markup that asserts "this text is a level 1 heading" without formatting code such as a bold tag indicating how such text should be displayed.

This separation of formatting and content makes it possible to present the same markup page in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices.

It can also be used to display the web page differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed.

Although the author of a web page typically links to a CSS file within the markup file, readers can specify a different style sheet, such as a CSS file stored on their own computer, to override the one the author has specified.

If the author or the reader did not link the document to a style sheet, the default style of the browser will be applied.

Another advantage of CSS is that aesthetic changes to the graphic design of a document (or hundreds of documents) can be applied quickly and easily, by editing a few lines in one file, rather than by a laborious (and thus expensive) process of crawling over every document line by line, changing markup.

The CSS specification describes a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element.

In this so-called cascade, priorities (or weights) are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable.

The CSS specifications are maintained by the Web Consortium (W3C).

Internet media type (MIME type) text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318 (March 1998).

The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents.

Links    H5P Flashcards  processing.js   4/11/2016

  4. HTML 5 Flash Card App – Powered with Backbone and Node.js
  5. H5P Flashcards tutorial
  6. Processing on the web
    This page tries to explain how to quickly and (as) correctly (as possible) use Processing sketches on webpages. The information is based on the work done by the processing.js group.

CSS frameworks   4/14/2016

The 15 Best Material Design Frameworks and Libraries   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CSS frameworks are pre-prepared software frameworks that are meant to allow for easier, more standards-compliant web design using the Cascading Style Sheets language.

Most of these frameworks contain at least a grid.

More functional frameworks also come with more features and additional JavaScript based functions, but are mostly design oriented and unobtrusive.

This differentiates these from functional and full JavaScript frameworks.

Two notable and widely used examples are Bootstrap or Foundation.

CSS frameworks offer different modules and tools:

  • reset style sheet
  • grid especially for responsive web design
  • web typography
  • set of icons in sprites or icon fonts
  • styling for tooltips, buttons, elements of forms
  • parts of graphical user interfaces like accordion, tabs, slideshow or modal windows (Lightbox)
  • equalizer to create equal height content
  • often used css helper classes (left, hide)

Bigger frameworks use a CSS interpreter like LESS or SASS.

Bootstrap Studio   4/14/2016

Bootstrap (front-end framework)   Bootstrap Studio    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end library for creating websites and web applications.

It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions.

It aims to ease the development of dynamic websites and web applications.

Bootstrap is a front end web framework, that is, an interface for the user, unlike the server-side code which resides on the "back end" or server.

Bootstrap is the most-starred project on GitHub, with over 94K stars and more than 40K forks.

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