To provide documentation on Computer Programming Languages.
A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.
The earliest known programmable machine preceded the invention of the digital computer and is the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, at the time a major centre of knowledge.
From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year.
Many programming languages require computation to be specified in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform), while other languages use other forms of program specification such as the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it).
The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning).
Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard), while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference.
Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common.
Introduction to Assembly Programming Language
An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions.
Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture, in contrast to most high-level programming languages, which are generally portable across multiple architectures, but require interpreting or compiling.
Assembly language may also be called assembly, assembler, ASM, symbolic machine code or assembly program.
Assembly language is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler; the conversion process is referred to as assembly, or assembling the source code.
Assembly time is the computational step where an assembler is run.
Assembly language uses a mnemonic to represent each low-level machine instruction or operation.
Typical operations require one or more operands in order to form a complete instruction, and most assemblers can therefore take labels, symbols and expressions as operands to represent addresses and other constants, freeing the programmer from tedious manual calculations.
Many assemblers offer additional mechanisms to facilitate program development, to control the assembly process, and to aid debugging.
Learning BASIC Programming
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.
Introduction to Computer Science for Everyone
C 'si', (as in the letter c) is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs and used to re-implement the Unix operating system.
It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems.
C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) since 1989 (see ANSI C) and subsequently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Introduction To Fortran
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics and computational chemistry.
It is a popular language for high-performance computing and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.
Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions.
Successive versions have added support for structured programming and processing of character-based data (FORTRAN 77), array programming, modular programming and generic programming (Fortran 90), high performance Fortran (Fortran 95), object-oriented programming (Fortran 2003) and concurrent programming (Fortran 2008).
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.
Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.
Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform.
The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licences.
As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License.
Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).
The latest version is Java 8, which is the only version currently supported for free by Oracle, although earlier versions are supported both by Oracle and other companies on a commercial basis.
Programming in PostScript
PostScript (PS) is a computer language for creating vector graphics.
It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton in 1982.
It is used as a page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.
The concepts of the PostScript language were seeded in 1976 when John Warnock was working at Evans & Sutherland, a computer graphics company.
At that time John Warnock was developing an interpreter for a large three-dimensional graphics database of New York harbor.
Warnock conceived the Design System language to process the graphics.
Concurrently, researchers at Xerox PARC had developed the first laser printer and had recognized the need for a standard means of defining page images.
In 1975-76 Bob Sproull and William Newman developed the Press format, which was eventually used in the Xerox Star system to drive laser printers.
But Press, a data format rather than a language, lacked flexibility, and PARC mounted the Interpress effort to create a successor.
In 1978 Evans & Sutherland asked Warnock to move from the San Francisco Bay Area to their main headquarters in Utah, but he was not interested in moving.
He then joined Xerox PARC to work with Martin Newell.
They rewrote Design System to create J & M (for "John and Martin") which was used for VLSI design and the investigation of type and graphics printing.
This work later evolved and expanded into the Interpress language.
Warnock left with Chuck Geschke and founded Adobe Systems in December 1982.
They, together with Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton created a simpler language, similar to Interpress, called PostScript, which went on the market in 1984.
At about this time they were visited by Steve Jobs, who urged them to adapt PostScript to be used as the language for driving laser printers.
In March 1985, the Apple LaserWriter was the first printer to ship with PostScript, sparking the desktop publishing (DTP) revolution in the mid-1980s.
The combination of technical merits and widespread availability made PostScript a language of choice for graphical output for printing applications.
For a time an interpreter (sometimes referred to as a RIP for Raster Image Processor) for the PostScript language was a common component of laser printers, into the 1990s.
However, the cost of implementation was high; computers output raw PS code that would be interpreted by the printer into a raster image at the printer's natural resolution.
This required high performance microprocessors and ample memory.
The LaserWriter used a 12 MHz Motorola 68000, making it faster than any of the Macintosh computers to which it attached.
When the laser printer engines themselves cost over a thousand dollars the added cost of PS was marginal.
But as printer mechanisms fell in price, the cost of implementing PS became too great a fraction of overall printer cost; in addition, with desktop computers becoming more powerful, it no longer made sense to offload the rasterisation work onto the resource-constrained printer.
By 2001, few lower-end printer models came with support for PostScript, largely due to growing competition from much cheaper non-PostScript ink jet printers, and new software-based methods to render PostScript images on the computer, making them suitable for any printer; PDF, a descendant of PostScript, provides one such method, and has largely replaced PostScript as de facto standard for electronic document distribution.
On high-end printers, PostScript processors remain common, and their use can dramatically reduce the CPU work involved in printing documents, transferring the work of rendering PostScript images from the computer to the printer.
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