To provide resources to the Computer Hardware Industry.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
(AMD) is an American worldwide semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company became fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009.
AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications.
AMD is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors.
Since acquiring ATI in 2006, AMD and its competitor Nvidia have dominated the discrete graphics processor unit (GPU) market.
Consumer electronics are electronic or digital equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment (flat screen TVs, DVD players, DVD movies, iPods, video games, remote control cars, etc.), communications (telephones, cell phones, e-mail-capable laptops, etc.) and home office activities (e.g., desktop computers, printers, paper shredders, etc.).
In British English they are often called brown goods by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from "white goods" such as washing machines and refrigerators.
In the 2010s, this distinction is not always present in large big box consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy, which sell both entertainment, communications and home office devices and kitchen appliances such as refrigerators.
Consumer electronics stores differ from professional audio stores in that the former sells consumer-grade electronics for private use, whereas the latter sells professional-grade electronics designed for use by audio engineers and audio technicians.
Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver.
Later products included telephones, personal computers, MP3 players, audio equipment, televisions (first cathode ray tube TVs, then in the 2000s, flatscreen TVs), calculators, GPS, automotive electronics (car stereos), video game consoles, electronic musical instruments, karaoke machines, digital cameras and players and recorders using video media such as VCRs in the 1980s and 1990s, followed by DVDs andBlu-ray discs.
Stores also sell digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones and smartphones.
In the 2000s, most products have become based on digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerization of information technology.
The CEA (Consumer Electronics Association) estimated the value of 2015 consumer electronics sales at US$220 billion.
The Intel Corporation (better known as Intel, stylized as intel) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California.
Intel is one of the world's largest and highest valued semiconductor chip makers, based on revenue.
It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers.
Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Samsung, HP and Dell.
Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing.
Intel Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968 by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability.
Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981.
Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business.
During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry.
During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.
Intel was ranked #56 on the 2015 rankings of the world's most valuable brands published by Millward Brown Optimor.
Intel has also begun research into electrical transmission and generation.
Intel has recently introduced a 3-D transistor that improves performance and energy efficiency.
Intel has begun mass-producing this 3-D transistor, named the Tri-Gate transistor, with their 22 nm process, which is currently used in their 3rd generation core processors initially released on April 29, 2012.
In 2011, SpectraWatt Inc., a solar cell spinoff of Intel, filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11.
In June 2013, Intel unveiled its fourth generation of Intel Core processors (Haswell) in an event named Computex in Taipei.
The Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, and supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Intel Array Building Blocks, Threading Building Blocks (TBB), and Xen.
Intel is a portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics.
The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information also made the name appropriate.
2 Rack-mount computer cases
3 Laptop computer cases
5 Chipsets for motherboards
6 Central processing units (CPUs)
7 Hard disk drives – internal (HDDs)
8 Hard disk drives – external (HDDs)
9 Drive controller cards / RAID cards
10 Solid-state drives (SSDs)
11 Optical disc drives (ODDs)
12 Fan controllers
13 Cooling solutions
14 Non-refillable liquid cooling
15 Refillable liquid cooling kits
16 Water block
17 Video card cooling
18 Visual display units (monitors)
19 Video cards
20 Graphics processing units (GPUs)
26 Network cards (NIC)
27 Chipsets for network cards
28 Power supply units (PSUs)
29 Switched-mode power supply units
31 Memory modules (RAM)
32 DRAM specialists for memory modules
34 Image scanners
35 Sound cards
36 TV tuner cards
37 USB flash drives
The Open Source Hardware Association
Open-source hardware (OSH), consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.
Both free and open-source software (FOSS) as well as open-source hardware is created by this open-source culture movement and applies a like concept to a variety of components.
It is sometimes, thus, referred to as FOSH (free and open-source hardware).
The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned so that others can make it - coupling it closely to the maker movement.
Hardware design (i.e. mechanical drawings, schematics, bills of material, PCB layout data, HDL source code and integrated circuit layout data), in addition to the software that drives the hardware, are all released under free/libre terms.
The original sharer gains feedback and potentially improvements on the design from the FOSH community.
There is now significant evidence that such sharing can drive a high return on investment for investors.
Since the rise of reconfigurable programmable logic devices, sharing of logic designs has been a form of open-source hardware.
Instead of the schematics, hardware description language (HDL) code is shared. HDL descriptions are commonly used to set up system-on-a-chip systems either in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) or directly in application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs.
HDL modules, when distributed, are called semiconductor intellectual property cores, or IP cores.
One example of open-source hardware is Phonebloks.
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This page was last updated April 30th, 2017 by kim
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