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Objective   3/10/2016

To document Computer Operation.

Computer Operation Overview   4/25/2016

The clipboard IS How work is achieved ...

The clipboard is a software facility used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations.

It is most commonly a part of a GUI environment and is usually implemented as an anonymous, temporary data buffer, sometimes called the paste buffer, that can be accessed from most or all programs within the environment via defined programming interfaces.

A typical application accesses clipboard functionality by mapping user input (keybindings, menu selections, etc.) to these interfaces.

Clipboard managers are applications that enable user to manipulate clipboard.

Copy, Cut, and Paste Tutorial for Beginners using Windows

KRDC - Remote Desktop Client   10/2/2016

KRDC - Remote Desktop Client

KRDC is a client application that allows you to view or even control the desktop session on another machine that is running a compatible server. VNC and RDP is supported.

Address Space / Sandboxing  5/14/2016

Booting   3/17/2016


In computing, booting (or booting up) is the initialization of a computerized system.

The system can be a computer or a computer appliance.

The booting process can be "hard", after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on (in order to diagnose particular hardware errors), or "soft", when those power-on self-tests (POST) can be avoided.

Soft booting can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by software command.

Booting is complete when the normal, operative, runtime environment is attained.

A boot loader is a computer program that loads an operating system or some other system software for the computer after completion of the power-on self-tests; it is the loader for the operating system itself.

Within the hard reboot process, it runs after completion of the self-tests, then loads and runs the software.

A boot loader is loaded into main memory from persistent memory, such as a hard disk drive or, in some older computers, from a medium such as punched cards, punched tape, or magnetic tape.

The boot loader then loads and executes the processes that finalize the boot.

Like POST processes, the boot loader code comes from a "hard-wired" and persistent location; if that location is too limited for some reason, that primary boot loader calls a second-stage boot loader or a secondary program loader.

On modern general purpose computers, the boot up process can take tens of seconds, and typically involves performing a power-on self-test, locating and initializing peripheral devices, and then finding, loading and starting an operating system.

The process of hibernating or sleeping does not involve booting.

Minimally, some embedded systems do not require a noticeable boot sequence to begin functioning and when turned on may simply run operational programs that are stored in ROM.

All computing systems are state machines, and a reboot may be the only method to return to a designated zero-state from an unintended, locked state.

Boot is short for bootstrap or bootstrap load and derives from the phrase to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps.

The usage calls attention to the requirement that, if most software is loaded onto a computer by other software already running on the computer, some mechanism must exist to load the initial software onto the computer.

Early computers used a variety of ad-hoc methods to get a small program into memory to solve this problem.

The invention of read-only memory (ROM) of various types solved this paradox by allowing computers to be shipped with a start up program that could not be erased.

Growth in the capacity of ROM has allowed ever more elaborate start up procedures to be implemented.

Computer Memory   12/15/2015

A Computer's Memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read.

Each cell has a numbered "address" and can store a Single Number.

The computer can be instructed to "put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357" or to "add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595".

The information stored in memory may represent practically anything.

Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give Significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.

In almost all modern computers, each Memory Cell is set up to store Binary Numbers in groups of Eight Bits (called a Byte).

|||| ||||   Each ARE Either ON or OFF

Typically Represented in Hexadecimal or Octal Notation.

Each Byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or -128 to +127.

To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight).

When Negative Numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation.

Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts.

In mathematics and digital electronics, a Binary Number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system or base-2 numeral system which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2.

Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using LOGIC Gates, the binary system is used internally by almost ALL modern computers and computer-based devices.

Each digit is referred to as a BIT.

A computer can store ANY Kind of Information in memory if it can be represented numerically.

Modern computers have Billions or even Trillions of bytes of memory.

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area.

There are typically between Two and One Hundred registers depending on the type of CPU.

Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed.

As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and Control Units) greatly increases the computer's speed.

Computer main memory comes in Two principal varieties:

RAM Random Access Memory or ROM Read Only Memory.

RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes, therefore the CPU can only read from it.

ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions.

In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely.

In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset.

In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM.

Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software.

Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable.

It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.

In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories, which are slower than registers but faster than main memory.

Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.

Graphical User Interface   4/25/2016

A Brief History of User Interface

In computer science, a graphical user interface or GUI, pronounced "gooey" is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on the keyboard.

The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.

In addition to computers, GUIs can be found in hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial equipment.

The term "GUI" tends not to be applied to other low-resolution types of interfaces with display resolutions, such as video games (where HUD is preferred), or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays because the term is restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens able to describe generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the PARC (Palo Alto Research Center).

Logic Gates   12/15/2015

BasicLogicGates2.gif BasicLogicGates1.png

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output.

Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.

Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements.

With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic, and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic.

Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers, registers, arithmetic logic units (ALUs), and computer memory, all the way up through complete microprocessors, which may contain more than 100 million gates.

In modern practice, most gates are made from field-effect transistors (FETs), particularly MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors).

Compound logic gates AND-OR-Invert (AOI) and OR-AND-Invert (OAI) are often employed in circuit design because their construction using MOSFETs is simpler and more efficient than the sum of the individual gates.

Multi-booting   3/17/2016

Wikipedia   Multi-booting

Multi-booting is the act of installing multiple operating systems on a computer, and being able to choose which one to boot.

The term dual-booting refers to the common configuration of specifically two operating systems.

Multi-booting may require a custom boot loader.

Raster Graphics   4/25/2016

Raster Graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics image is a dot matrix data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats.

A bitmap, a single-bit raster, corresponds bit-for-bit with an image displayed on a screen, generally in the same format used for storage in the display's video memory, or maybe as a device-independent bitmap.

A raster is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel (a color depth, which determines the number of colors it can represent).

The printing and prepress industries know raster graphics as contones (from "continuous tones").

The opposite to contones is "line work", usually implemented as vector graphics in digital systems.

Vector Vs Raster Graphics

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This page was last updated April 30th, 2017 by kim

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