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Social marketing resources.
What is Social Marketing?
Social marketing has the primary aim of "social good", while in "commercial marketing" the aim is primarily financial. Although social marketing is sometimes seen only as using standard commercial marketing practices to achieve non-commercial goals, this is an oversimplification. Commercial marketers can still contribute to achievement of social good.
Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches, to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory as well as audience and partnership insight.
Its goal is to deliver competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.
Increasingly, social marketing is being described as having "two parents"—a "social parent", including social science and social policy approaches, and a "marketing parent", including commercial and public sector marketing approaches. Recent years have also witnessed a broader focus in social marketing beyond the influences on and changing individual behaviour, to socio-cultural and structural influences on social issues. Consequently, social marketing scholars are beginning to advocate for a broader definition of social marketing, beyond behavioural change, which is equally concerned with the effects (efficiency and effectiveness) and the process (equity, fairness and sustainability) of social marketing programs.
Many scholars ascribe the beginning of the field of social marketing to an article published by G.D. Wiebe in the Winter 1951-1952 edition of Public Opinion Quarterly. In it, Wiebe posed a rhetorical question: "Why can’t you sell brotherhood and rational thinking like you can sell soap?” He then went on to discuss what he saw as the challenges of attempting to sell a social good as if it were a commodity, thus identifying social marketing (though he did not label it as such) as a discipline unique from c mmodity marketing. Yet, Wilkie & Moore (2003) note that the marketing discipline has been involved with questions about the intersection of marketing and society since its earliest days as a discipline.
A decade later, organizations such as the KfW Entwicklungsbank in Germany, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in The Netherlands, UK Department for International Development, US Agency for International Development, World Health Organization and the World Bank began sponsoring social marketing interventions to improve family planning and achieve other social goals in Africa, Sri Lanka, and elsewhere.
The next milestone in the evolution of social marketing was the publication of "Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change" in the Journal of Marketing by Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman. Kotler and Zaltman coined the term 'social marketing' and defined it as "the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and marketing research." They conclude that "social marketing appears to represent a bridging mechanism which links the behavior scientist's knowledge of human behavior with the socially useful implementation of what that knowledge allows."
Craig Lefebvre and June Flora introduced social marketing to the public health community in 1988, where it has been most widely used and explored. They noted that there was a need for "large scale, broad-based, behavior change focused programs" to improve public health (the community wide prevention of cardiovascular diseases in their respective projects) and outlined eight essential components of social marketing that still hold today:
. A consumer orientation to realize organizational (social) goals
. An emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between providers and consumers
. Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies
. The use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials
. An analysis of distribution (or communication) channels
. Use of the marketing mix—using and blending product, price, place and promotion characteristics in intervention planning and implementation
. A process tracking system with both integrative and control functions
. A management process that involves problem analysis, planning, implementation and feedback functions
. Speaking of what they termed "social change campaigns", Kotler and Ned Roberto introduced the subject by writing, "A social change campaign is an organized effort conducted by one group (the change agent) which attempts to persuade others (the target adopters) to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices or behavior." Their 1989 text was updated in 2002 by Philip Kotler, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee. In 2005, University of Stirling was the first university to open a dedicated research institute to Social Marketing, while in 2007, Middlesex University became the first university to offer a specialized postgraduate programme in Health & Social Marketing.
In recent years there has been an important development to distinguish between "strategic social marketing" and "operational social marketing".
Much of the literature and case examples focus on operational social marketing, using it to achieve specific behavioral goals in relation to different audiences and topics. However, there has been increasing efforts to ensure social marketing goes "upstream" and is used much more strategically to inform policy formulation and strategy development. Here the focus is less on specific audience and topic work but uses strong customer understanding and insight to inform and guide effective policy and strategy development.
Social marketing is also being explored as a method for social innovation, a framework to increase the adoption of evidence-based practices among professionals and organizations, and as a core skill for public sector managers and social entrepreneurs. It is being viewed as an approach to design more effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable approaches to enhance social well-being that extends beyond individual behavior change to include creating positive shifts in social networks and social norms, businesses, markets and public policy.
Many examples exist of social marketing research, with over 120 papers compiled in a six volume set.). For example, research now shows ways to reduce the intentions of people to binge drink or engage in dangerous driving. Martin, Lee, Weeks and Kaya (2013) suggests that understanding consumer personality and how people view others is important. People were shown ads talking of the harmful effects of binge drinking. People who valued close friends as a sense of who they are were less likely to want to binge drink after seeing an ad featuring them and a close friend. People who were loners or who did not see close friends important to their sense of who they were reacted better to ads featuring an individual. A similar pattern was shown for ads showing a person driving at dangerous speeds. This suggests ads showing potential harm to citizens from binge drinking or dangerous driving are less effective than ads highlighting a person’s close friends.
Council of Canadians with Disabilities
CCD is a national human rights organization of people with disabilities working for an inclusive and accessible Canada.
CCD's Priorities Include:
CCD seeks to achieve these priorities through law reform, litigation, public education and dialogue with key
CCD Believes In:
Citizenship—People with disabilities have the same rights and responsibilities as Canadians without disabilities. Socially made barriers, which prevent participation and discriminate against people with disabilities must be eliminated.
Consumer Control—People with disabilities must be involved in all stages of the development of disability services and policies and in all decision-making that affects their lives.
Equality and Human Rights—The Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees equal benefit and protection under the law and the Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits discrimination based upon physical or mental disability.
All legislation must conform to the demands of the Charter.
Universal Design—The environment should be designed to be usable by people with various disabilities.
CCD's Volunteers Contribute to an Inclusive and Accessible Canada by:
Self-representation—Speaking out to: the courts, decision-makers, the media, Parliamentary Committees.
Sharing Expertise—Working to create new policy, such as a National Action Plan on Disability.
Knowledge Development—Researching issues of concern to persons with disabilities, such as poverty, home supports, accessible transportation regulations and income support.
Extending Disability Rights—Doing Charter-based, test-case litigation to bring about disability-positive public policies in education, employment, health care and transportation.
Battling Barriers—Working to prevent the creation of new barriers; for example, launching a Canadian Transportation Agency case against VIA rail when it purchased inaccessible train cars.
Law Reform—Participating in legislative reviews: Human Rights Act, the Transportation Act and the Employment Equity Act.
Networking—Collaborating with major sectors of society to promote disability rights; for example, participating in the Voluntary Sector Initiative, a joint government and community project examining technology, research, volunteerism and policy development.
Partnership Development—Joining forces with other groups to build strong initiatives, such as policy development forums on key issues of concern to persons with disabilities.
Disability Alliance BC
For over 35 years, Disability Alliance BC (formerly BC Coalition of People with Disabilities) has been a provincial, cross-disability voice in British Columbia.
Our mission is to support people, with all disabilities, to live with dignity, independence and as equal and full participants in the community.
We champion issues impacting the lives of people with disabilities through our direct services, community partnerships, advocacy, research and publications.
MS Society of Canada
The MS Society provides services to people with multiple sclerosis and their families and funds research to find the cause and cure for this disease. We have a membership of 17,000 and are the only national voluntary organization in Canada that supports both MS research and services. Since our founding in 1948, the core support of the MS Society has been from tens of thousands of dedicated individuals, companies and foundations in communities across Canada. The Society receives almost no funding from government.
The MS Society is governed by a board of directors comprised of 14 volunteer members who are elected annually. There are seven regional divisions and more than 90 chapters that engage in many community-based activities.
Some 1,500 volunteers serve on MS Society national, division and chapter boards and committees. An estimated 13,500 women and men are volunteers for service programs, fundraising events, public awareness campaigns and social action activities.
The head office of the MS Society is located in Toronto, Ontario. Division offices are located in Dartmouth, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton, and Vancouver.
email@example.com 1-604-689-3144 1-604-689-0377 Fax
The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA), founded in 1918, is one of the oldest voluntary organizations in Canada. Each year, we provide direct service to more than 1.2 million Canadians through the combined efforts of more than 10,000 volunteers and staff across Canada in over 300 communities.
As a nation-wide, voluntary organization, the Canadian Mental Health Association promotes the mental health of all and supports the resilience and recovery of people experiencing mental illness. The CMHA accomplishes this mission through advocacy, education, research and service.
CMHA branches across Canada provide a wide range of innovative services and supports to people who are experiencing mental illness and their families. These services are tailored to the needs and resources of the communities where they are based. One of the core goals of these services is to help people with mental illness develop the personal tools to lead meaningful and productive lives.
To do our work we rely on public and corporate donations.
The Sam Sullivan Disability Foundation
The Sam Sullivan Disability Foundation and its affiliated societies encourage and promote the capabilities of people with physical disabilities. We want to see everyone, regardless of physical capabilities, participating fully in society as informed, active and financially-secure citizens.
Beginning in the late 1980s, tetraplegic Sam Sullivan founded a series of charitable groups to provide opportunities for people with disabilities:
The Tetra Society, which recruits technically skilled volunteers who have collectively made more than 5,000 ‘gizmos’ for people with disabilities throughout North America.
The ConnecTra Society, which enables individuals to become more involved in their community by taking advantage of employment, training and social opportunities.
The Disabled Sailing Association provides more than 1,000 life-changing sailing experiences each year, has catalyzed the formation of 20 similar programs through North America and has 150 of its fully accessible 16-foot sailboats in use throughout the world (and now has its own boat donation site).
The BC Mobility Opportunities Society makes it possible for people with disabilities to access the great outdoors, from Metro Vancouver parks to adventures to far-flung destinations including Mt. Kilimanjaro and Everest Base Camp; there are currently 117 of its access-all-areas TrailRiders in use in programs worldwide.
Vancouver Adapted Music Society puts musical self-expression within reach, supporting and promoting musicians, staging concerts and operating its own CD-quality studio.
And the Disabled Independent Gardeners Association makes gardening accessible, enabling participants to grow fresh, healthy produce at home or in four community gardens across Vancouver.
The Disability Foundation is a fundraising entity to support these groups. We were launched as Reach in 1996, but renamed in Sam’s honour in 2001 – purely because there was already an organization named Reach that was not too happy about us using their name. (Sam himself voted against the suggestion but the board carried the day.)
Since its origin, the Sam Sullivan Disability Foundation has raised more than $20 million and provided quality of life opportunities for more than 10,000 people with significant disabilities. The Foundation supports six non-profit organizations and several other initiatives that provide services throughout Canada and beyond.
In recognition of his service to people with disabilities, Sam was invested as a member of the Order of Canada in 2005 and has been the recipient of the Terry Fox Award and the Christopher and Dana Reeve Award among many other honours.
As mayor of Vancouver, Sullivan made a global statement about the capabilities of people with disabilities by waving the Olympic and Paralympic flags during the closing ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy.
He was later appointed Canada’s 2010 Paralympic Games Ambassador.
Sam is currently serving as the MLA for Vancouver-False Creek.
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