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Introduction to Computing - David Evans

The first million years of hominid history produced tools to amplify, and later mechanize, our physical abilities to enable us to move faster, reach higher, and hit harder. We have developed tools that amplify physical force by the trillions and increase the speeds at which we can travel by the thousands.

Computing is the ultimate mental amplifier.

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Objective   10/18/2018

Funding sources.

Funding  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia

Funding is the act of providing financial resources, usually in the form of money, or other values such as effort or time, to finance a need, program, and project, usually by an organisation or government. Generally, this word is used when a firm uses its internal reserves to satisfy its necessity for cash, while the term financing is used when the firms acquires capital from external sources.[1]

Sources of funding include credit, venture capital, donations, grants, savings, subsidies, and taxes. Fundings such as donations, subsidies, and grants that have no direct requirement for return of investment are described as "soft funding" or "crowdfunding". Funding that facilitates the exchange of equity ownership in a company for capital investment via an online funding portal as per the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (alternately, the "JOBS Act of 2012") (U.S.) is known as equity crowdfunding.

Funds can be allocated for either short-term or long-term purposes.

Methods of Funding

Government Grants

Main article: Grant (money)

Government could allocate funds itself or through government agencies to projects that benefits the public through selection process to students or researchers and even organisations. At least two external peer-reviewers and internal research award committee review each application. The research awards committee would meet some time to discuss shortlisted applications. A further shortlist and ranking is made. Projects are funded and applicants are informed.[6]

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding exists in mainly two types, reward-based crowdfunding and equity-based crowdfunding. In the former, small firms could pre-sell a product or service to start a business whereas in the latter, backers buys certain amount of shares of a firm in exchange of money.[7] As for reward-based crowdfunding, project creators would set a funding target and deadline. Anyone who is interested can pledge on the projects. Projects must reach its targeted amount in order for it to be carried out. Once the projects ended with enough funds, projects creators would have to make sure that they fulfil their promises by the intended timeline and delivery their products or services.[8]

Raised from investors

To raise capital, you require them from investors who are interested in the investments. You have to present those investors with high-return projects. By displaying high-level potentials of the projects, investors would be more attracted to put their money into those projects. After certain amount of time, usually in a year’s time, rewards of the investment will be shared with investors. This makes investors happy and they may continue to invest further.[9] If returns do not meet the intended level, this could reduce the willingness of investors to invest their money into the funds. Hence, the amounts of financial incentives are highly weighted determinants to keep the funding remain at a desirable level.


Crowdfunding  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising many small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet. [1] Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and of alternative finance. In 2015, it was estimated that worldwide over US$34 billion was raised this way.[2][3]

Although similar concepts can also be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, and other methods, the term crowdfunding refers to Internet-mediated registries.[4] This modern crowdfunding model is generally based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea.[5]

Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range for-profit entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses, travel, or community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects.[6]

History

Crowdfunding has a long history with several roots. Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: Authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes. The book would be written and published if enough subscribers signaled their readiness to buy the book once it was out. The subscription business model is not exactly crowdfunding, since the actual flow of money only begins with the arrival of the product. The list of subscribers has, though, the power to create the necessary confidence among investors that is needed to risk the publication.[8]

War bonds are theoretically a form of crowdfunding military conflicts. London's mercantile community saved the Bank of England in the 1730s when customers demanded their pounds to be converted into gold - they supported the currency until confidence in the pound was restored, thus crowdfunded their own money. A clearer case of modern crowdfunding is Auguste Comte's scheme to issue notes for the public support of his further work as a philosopher. The "Premiere Circulaire Annuelle adressée par l’auteur du Systeme de Philosophie Positive" was published on 14 March 1850, and several of these notes, blank and with sums have survived.[9] The cooperative movement of the 19th and 20th centuries is a broader precursor. It generated collective groups, such as community or interest-based groups, pooling subscribed funds to develop new concepts, products, and means of distribution and production, particularly in rural areas of Western Europe and North America. In 1885, when government sources failed to provide funding to build a monumental base for the Statue of Liberty, a newspaper-led campaign attracted small donations from 160,000 donors.[8]

Crowdfunding on the internet first gained popular and mainstream use in the arts and music communities.[10] The first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U.S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign. They subsequently used this method to fund their studio albums.[11][12][13] In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents. By early 1999, he had raised more than US$125,000 on the Internet from at least 25 fans, providing him with the funds to complete his film.[14] In 2002, the "Free Blender" campaign was an early software crowdfunding precursor.[15][16] The campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting $100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members.[17]

Crowdfunding started to gain mainstream traction with the launch of ArtistShare (2003).[18] As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), and Microventures (2010).[19][20]

The phenomenon of crowdfunding is older than the term "crowdfunding". According to wordspy.com, the earliest recorded use of the word was in August 2006.[21]

ArtistShare  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia    artistshare.com

ArtistShare is the internet's first crowdfunding platform for musicians.[2][3][4][5] It also operates as a record label and business model for creative artists[6][7] which enables them to fund their projects by allowing the general public to directly finance, watch the creative process, and in most cases gain access to extra material from an artist.[8] According to Bloomberg News, the company’s chief executive officer, Brian Camelio, founded ArtistShare in 2000 with the idea that fans would finance production costs for albums sold only on the Internet and Artists also would enjoy much more favourable contract terms.[9] ArtistShare was described in 2005 as a "completely new business model for creative artists" which "benefits both the artist and the fans by financing new and original artistic projects while building a strong and loyal fan base".[10]

History

A United States-based company, ArtistShare (2001) is documented as being the first crowdfunding website [2] followed later by sites such as Sellaband (2006), SliceThePie (2007), IndieGoGo (2008), Spot.us (2008), Pledge Music (2009), and Kickstarter (2009).[7]

ArtistShare projects have received 29 Grammy nominations and 10 Grammy awards to date.[11]

In 2005, American composer Maria Schneider's Concert in the Garden became the first album in Grammy history to win an award without being available in retail stores.[6] The album was ArtistShare's first fan-funded project. Schneider received four nominations that year for the fan-funded album and won the Grammy for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album.[12][13] According to ArtistShare.com, ArtistShare artists consist of "some of today's most prestigious artists including Pulitzer prize and Oscar nominated writers, Guggenheim fellowship recipients and NEA Jazz Masters".[11]

In May 2013, ArtistShare partnered with Blue Note Records to form a collaboration titled 'Blue Note/ArtistShare'. The Blue Note/ArtistShare collaboration was forged by Brian Camelio, Bruce Lundvall, and Don Was, President of Blue Note Records. In Blue Note's press release about the collaboration, Lundvall, Blue Note Chairman Emeritus, is quoted as saying, "'ArtistShare founder Brian Camelio is a true visionary. I see the ArtistShare business model as a key component of the future music business'"[14] The collaboration will "'essentially serve as a low-risk development arm of the label'" since the recordings will be funded by the fans.[15]

Indiegogo  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia    indiegogo.com

Indiegogo /??ndi'go?go?/ is an international crowdfunding website founded in 2008 by Danae Ringelmann,[2] Slava Rubin, and Eric Schell. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. The site is one of the first sites to offer crowd funding. Indiegogo allows people to solicit funds for an idea, charity, or start-up business. Indiegogo charges a 5% fee on contributions. This charge is in addition to credit card and PayPal charges that range from 3.5% to 9%. Fifteen million people visit the site each month. [3]

The site runs on a rewards-based system, meaning donors, investors, or customers who are willing help to fund a project or product can donate and receive a gift, rather than an equity stake in the company.[4] Following changes in Security and Exchange Commission rules earlier in 2016, Indiegogo has partnered with MicroVentures to offer equity-based campaigns beginning in November 2016, allowing unaccredited investors to participate with equity stakes.[5]

In 2014, Indiegogo launched Indiegogo Life, a service that people can use to raise money for emergencies, medical expenses, celebrations, or other life events. Indiegogo Life did not charge a platform fee. In 2015 Indiegogo Life was renamed to Generosity.com.[6] Donors use solely credit cards to donate, and processing is conducted by Stripe.[7] Stripe's processing fees of 3% plus 30 cents of every donation still apply.[8]

History

In 2002, while working as an analyst on Wall Street, Danae Ringelmann co-produced a reading of an Arthur Miller play. Though the performance was popular with audiences, there was little financial incentive available, and Ringelmann decided to seek alternative revenue streams.[9] Ringelmann was originally inspired to work with independent filmmakers and theater producers after a filmmaker 50 years her senior saw she worked at JPMorgan and asked her to fund his film.[9][10][11] In 2006, Ringelmann went on to the Haas School of Business to start a company she felt would "democratize" fundraising.[9][10] There she met Eric Schell and Slava Rubin, who had had similar experiences with fundraising.[11] Schell had previously worked with The House Theater Company in Chicago,[12] while Rubin had started a charity fundraiser for cancer research, after losing his father to cancer as a child.[13]

Ringelmann, Schell, and Rubin developed their concept in 2007, under the name Project Keiyaku.[14][15] The site officially launched at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2008, with a focus on film projects.[10] In June 2010, MTV New Media partnered with Indiegogo to develop new content from the site's projects.[16] In September 2011, the company raised a $1.5 million Series Seed financing round, led by Metamorphic Ventures, ff Venture Capital, MHS Capital and Steve Schoettler, Zynga's co-founder.[17] In February 2012, President Barack Obama's Startup America partnered with Indiegogo to offer crowdfunding to entrepreneurs in the U.S.[18]

In June 2012, Indiegogo raised a $15 million Series A round from Insight Ventures, Khosla Ventures and Steve Schoettler, Zynga's co-founder.[19] In January 2014, a Series B round of funding added $40 million to bring the total venture capital raised to $56.5 million.[20][4]

Kickstarter  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia    kickstarter.com

Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation[2] based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity.[3] The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life".[4] Kickstarter has reportedly received more than $1.9 billion in pledges from 9.4 million backers to fund 257,000 creative projects, such as films, music, stage shows, comics, journalism, video games, technology and food-related projects.[5]

People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges.[6] This model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work.[7]

History

Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler.[8] The New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA".[9] Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010"[10] and "Best Websites of 2011".[11] Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake.[12] The company is based in Greenpoint, Brooklyn.[13]

Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010, when he joined Expert Labs.[14] Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched.[15] On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released an iOS app called Kickstarter for the iPhone.[16] The app is aimed at users who create and back projects and is the first time Kickstarter has had an official mobile presence.[17]

On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom,[18] followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013,[19] Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013,[20] the Netherlands on April 28, 2014, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden on September 15, 2014,[21] Germany on April 28, 2015, France and Spain on May 19, 2015,[22] Austria, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and Switzerland on June 16, 2015, Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016,[23] Mexico on November 15, 2016 and Japan on September 12, 2017. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation.[24]

Model

Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment.[25][26] Project creators choose a deadline and a minimum funding goal. If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected (a kind of assurance contract).[27] The platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from the US, UK,[28] Canada,[29] Australia, New Zealand,[20] The Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Mexico.

Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised.[30] Their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee.[31] Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. The web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site.[32]

There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises.[33] Projects might also fail even after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome.[34][35]

Asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people really know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s even an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t actively supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between patronage and commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing; you are trying to create value for the people who support you. We focus on creative projects—music, film, technology, art, design, food and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are probably ten times the size of all of the others combined."[36]

MicroVentures  10/18/2017

from Wikipedia    microventures.com

MicroVentures is an equity crowdfunding website offering investments in early stage companies. MicroVentures connects accredited investors with startups, businesses and services looking to raise funds or participate in select secondary market opportunities.[1][2][3] It is the only major equity crowdfunding site that is a broker-dealer registered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)[4][5] and the first to take a portfolio company to a successful exit.[6][7][8] As of October 2013, MicroVentures had raised $20 million, spread among 45 companies[9] including Twitter, Facebook, and Yelp (before they reached the public markets).[10][11][12]


Business grants and financing    Canada.ca   10/18/2017

Business grants and financing

Search for government grants, loans and financing
Use this search tool to get a personalized list of government financing programs for your business based on your financing needs, your location and your industry.

Government grants and financing - Canada Business Network   10/18/2017

Government grants and financing - Canada Business Network

Government departments and agencies provide financing such as grants, contributions, subsidies, and loan guarantees. Find out what type of government financing may be available for your business. Use the search tool or browse by type of financing.

Grants | The Canada Council for the Arts   10/18/2017

Grants | The Canada Council for the Arts

In 2015-16 over 2,000 Canadian artists and 2,200 arts organizations received Canada Council grants.

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